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Jpn J Cancer Res. 1996 Apr; 87(4): 357–362.
PMCID: PMC5921105
PMID: 8641966

Inhibition of in vitro Tumor Cell Invasion by Ginsenoside Rg3

Abstract

The effect of plant glycosides on tumor cell invasion was examined. Among the glycosides tested, ginsenoside Rgs was found to be a potent inhibitor of invasion by rat ascites hepatoma cells (MM1), B16FE7 melanoma cells, human small cell lung carcinoma (OC10), and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PSN‐1) cells, when examined in a cell monolayer invasion model. Structurally analogous ginsenosides, Rb2, 20(R)‐ginsenoside Rg2 and 20(S)‐ginsenoside Rg3 (a stereoisomer of Rg3), showed little inhibitory activity. Neither Rh1, Rh2, 20(R)‐ginsenosides Rh1 Rb1, Rc nor Re had any effect. The effective ginsenoside, Rg3, tended to inhibit experimental pulmonary metastasis by highly metastatic mouse melanoma B16FE7 cells as well. Taking account of our previous finding that 1‐oleoyl‐lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induced invasion by MM1 cells in the monolayer invasion model, the effect of Rg3 on molecular events associated with the invasion induced by LPA was analyzed in order to understand the mechanism of the inhibition. Rg3, which suppressed the invasion induced by LPA, dose‐dependently inhibited the LPA‐triggered rise of intracellular Ca2+. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation triggered by LPA was not inhibited by Rg3.

Keywords: Ginsenoside, Tumor cell invasion, Ca2+

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